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Fundamental Biomechanics Of Sport And Exercise
by Watkins, James
ISBN-13 : 9780415815086
ISBN-10 : 0415815088
Publisher : Routledge
Format : Paperback / softback
Pub Date : March 2014
Status : Published

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Price: S$72.64


Sypnosis

Fundamental Biomechanics of Sport and Exercise is an engaging and comprehensive introductory textbook that explains biomechanical concepts from first principles, showing clearly how the science relates to real sport and exercise situations. Every chapter includes numerous applied examples from sport and exercise, helping the student to understand how mechanical concepts describe both simple and complex movements. In addition, innovative worksheets for field and laboratory work are included that contain clear objectives, a description of method, data recording sheets, plus a set of exemplary data and worked analysis. Alongside these useful features are definitions of key terms plus review questions to aid student learning, with detailed solutions provided for all numerical questions. This is an essential textbook for any biomechanics course taken as part of degree programme in sport and exercise science, kinesiology, physical therapy, sports coaching or athletic training.

Table of Contents
List of practical worksheets
xv
Preface xvii
Acknowledgements xix
About the author xx
PART I Functional anatomy of the musculoskeletal system
1(200)
1 The musculoskeletal system
3(22)
Objectives
3(1)
Unicellular and multicellular organisms
3(2)
Cellular organisation in multicellular organisms
5(3)
Tissues
5(2)
Organs and systems
7(1)
The musculoskeletal system
8(15)
Musculotendinous units
10(2)
Force, mechanics and biomechanics
12(1)
Load, strain and stress
12(4)
Musculoskeletal system function
16(5)
The human machine
21(2)
Loading on the musculoskeletal system
23(1)
Review questions
23(2)
2 The skeleton
25(31)
Objectives
25(1)
Composition and function of the skeleton
25(1)
Terminology
26(5)
Common bone features
27(1)
Anatomical frame of reference and spatial terminology
28(3)
The axial skeleton
31(10)
The skull
31(2)
The vertebral column
33(7)
The rib cage
40(1)
The appendicular skeleton
41(14)
The upper limb
41(4)
The lower limb
45(10)
Review questions
55(1)
3 Connective tissues
56(35)
Objectives
56(1)
Functions of connective tissues
56(2)
Mechanical support
57(1)
Intercellular exchange
57(1)
Classification of connective tissues
57(1)
Ordinary connective tissues
58(13)
Elastin and collagen fibres
58(1)
Ground substance
59(1)
Ordinary connective tissue cells
60(1)
Irregular ordinary connective tissues
60(5)
Regular ordinary connective tissue
65(5)
Fibrous tissue, elastic tissue and fascia
70(1)
Cartilage
71(2)
Hyaline cartilage
72(1)
Fibrocartilage
72(1)
Elastic cartilage
73(1)
Bone
73(17)
Bone growth and development
74(9)
Structure of mature bone
83(7)
Review questions
90(1)
4 The articular system
91(21)
Objectives
91(1)
Structural classification of joints
91(7)
Fibrous joints
92(1)
Cartilaginous joints
93(2)
Synovial joints
95(3)
Joint movements
98(3)
Degrees of freedom
98(1)
Angular movements
99(2)
Synovial joint classification
101(2)
Uniaxial
101(1)
Biaxial
102(1)
Multiaxial
103(1)
Flexibility, stability and laxity in synovial joints
103(8)
Flexibility
103(2)
Stability and laxity
105(1)
Functions of joint capsule and ligaments
106(4)
Flexibility training
110(1)
Review questions
111(1)
5 The neuromuscular system
112(44)
Objectives
112(1)
The nervous system
112(13)
Neurons
114(3)
Nerve impulse transmission
117(3)
Nerve tissue organisation in the brain
120(1)
Nerve tissue organisation in the spinal cord and spinal nerves
121(2)
Voluntary and reflex movements
123(2)
Nerve fibre injuries
125(1)
Skeletal muscle
125(13)
Origins and insertions
125(2)
Pennate and non-pennate muscles
127(1)
Fusiform musculotendinous units
128(1)
Muscle fibres
129(2)
Muscular contraction
131(1)
Isometric length-tension relationship in a sarcomere
132(2)
Isometric length-tension relationship in a musculotendinous unit
134(2)
Motor units
136(1)
Slow and fast twitch muscle fibres
137(1)
Muscle architecture and muscle function
138(5)
Roles of muscles
139(2)
Muscle fibre arrangement and force and excursion
141(1)
Biarticular muscles
142(1)
Kinaesthetic sense and proprioception
143(4)
Proprioceptors
144(3)
Force-velocity relationship in musculotendinous units
147(8)
Action and contraction in musculotendinous units
148(1)
Stretch-shorten cycle
149(6)
Review questions
155(1)
6 Mechanical characteristics of musculoskeletal components
156(18)
Objectives
156(1)
Stress-strain relationships in solids
156(5)
Units of force
158(1)
Stiffness and compliance
158(2)
Toughness, fragility and brittleness
160(1)
Energy
161(7)
Work, strain energy and kinetic energy
161(2)
Gravitational potential energy
163(2)
Hysteresis, resilience and damping
165(1)
Resilience of the lower limbs in running
166(2)
Viscosity and viscoelasticity
168(3)
Mechanical model of viscoelasticity
169(1)
Properties of viscoelastic materials
170(1)
Shock absorption in joints
171(2)
Review questions
173(1)
7 Structural adaptation
174(27)
Objectives
174(1)
Adaptation
174(7)
Biopositive and bionegative effects of loading
175(4)
Response and adaptation of musculoskeletal components to loading
179(1)
Optimum strain environment
180(1)
Structural adaptation in bone
181(12)
Stereotypical loading and optimum bone mass
181(1)
Bone modelling throughout life
182(1)
Flexure-drift phenomenon
182(2)
Chondral modelling phenomenon
184(9)
Structural adaptation in regular fibrous tissues
193(2)
Structural adaptation at ligament and tendon insertions
194(1)
Structural adaptation in muscle
195(4)
Strength changes
196(1)
Muscle extensibility changes
197(2)
Review questions
199(2)
PART II Biomechanics of movement
201(307)
8 Introduction to biomechanics of movement
203(13)
Objectives
203(1)
Force
203(1)
Mechanics
204(3)
Subdisciplines of mechanics
205(2)
Biomechanics
207(1)
Forms of motion
207(3)
Units of measurement
210(5)
Unit symbols in the SI system
212(1)
Conversion of units
212(3)
Review questions
215(1)
9 Linear motion
216(126)
Objectives
216(1)
Space and the Newtonian frame of reference
216(3)
Anatomical frame of reference
219(1)
Distance and speed
220(4)
Average speed in a marathon race
221(2)
Effect of running wide in middle-distance track events
223(1)
Linear kinematic analysis of a 100 m sprint
224(9)
Video recordings for movement analysis
224(2)
Distance-time and speed-time data from video analysis
226(4)
Acceleration
230(3)
Vector and scalar quantities
233(4)
Displacement vectors
233(1)
Velocity vectors
234(3)
Centre of gravity
237(3)
Stability
240(8)
Friction
248(5)
Force vectors and resultant force
253(9)
Trigonometry of a right-angled triangle
256(3)
Pythagoras' theorem
259(1)
Resolution of a vector into component vectors
259(3)
Cycle length, cycle rate and speed of movement in human locomotion
262(6)
Stride parameters and stride cycle in walking and running
262(2)
Effect of speed of walking and running on stride length and stride rate
264(1)
Optimal stride length
265(2)
Trajectory of the centre of gravity in walking
267(1)
Ground reaction force in walking
268(4)
Components of the ground reaction force
269(2)
Centre of pressure
271(1)
Path of centre of pressure in walking
271(1)
Ground reaction force in running
272(7)
Active and passive loading
274(2)
Effect of shoes on rate of loading
276(2)
Effect of leg and foot alignment on rate of loading
278(1)
Linear momentum
279(1)
Newton's laws of motion and gravitation
280(26)
Newton's first law of motion
281(1)
Newton's law of gravitation: gravity and weight
281(3)
Newton's second law of motion: The impulse of a force
284(4)
Units of force
288(3)
Free body diagram
291(1)
Resultant force and equilibrium
292(5)
Newton's third law of motion
297(9)
Conservation of linear momentum
306(2)
Uniformly accelerated motion
308(6)
Air resistance
311(3)
Projectiles
314(18)
Trajectory of a projectile in the absence of air resistance
316(5)
Trajectory of a shot
321(5)
Effect of air resistance on the range of a shot put
326(1)
Trajectory of a long jumper
327(4)
Effect of air resistance on flight distance in the long jump
331(1)
Review questions
332(10)
Linear kinematics
332(2)
Linear impulse and linear momentum
334(1)
Vectors
334(2)
Ground reaction force
336(3)
Uniformly accelerated motion
339(3)
10 Angular motion
342(106)
Objectives
342(1)
Moment of a force
342(8)
Clockwise and anticlockwise moments
344(1)
The location of the joint centre of gravity of two masses
345(3)
Two conditions for a state of equilibrium
348(2)
Location of the centre of gravity of the human body
350(13)
Direct approach
351(4)
Indirect approach
355(5)
Determination of the whole body centre of gravity by the application of the principle of moments
360(3)
Levers
363(29)
Lever systems
364(3)
Lever systems in the human musculoskeletal system
367(17)
The use of body segments as levers in strength and endurance training
384(8)
Angular displacement, angular velocity and angular acceleration
392(4)
Relationship between linear velocity and angular velocity
395(1)
Relationship between linear acceleration and angular acceleration
395(1)
Centripetal and centrifugal force
396(8)
Centripetal force in throwing the hammer
398(2)
Centripetal force in cycling around a curved track
400(2)
Centripetal force in running around a curved track
402(2)
Concentric force, eccentric force and couple
404(4)
Rotation and Newton's first law of motion
408(2)
Moment of inertia
410(9)
Measurement of moment of inertia
411(5)
Determination of the moment of inertia of a gymnast about the axis of a horizontal bar
416(3)
Angular momentum
419(3)
Rotation and Newton's second law of motion
422(3)
Transfer of angular momentum
425(8)
Demonstration of transfer of angular momentum using a rotating turntable
425(3)
Transfer of angular momentum in a forward pike dive
428(1)
Transfer of angular momentum in the long jump
429(1)
Transfer of angular momentum in a standing back somersault
430(3)
Rotation and Newton's third law of motion
433(2)
Somersaulting and twisting
435(8)
Contact twist
436(1)
Counter-rotation twist
436(4)
Tilt twist
440(3)
Review questions
443(5)
Moment of a force and levers
443(1)
Segmental analysis
444(1)
Angular displacement, angular velocity and angular acceleration
445(2)
Angular impulse and angular momentum
447(1)
11 Work, energy and power
448(28)
Objectives
448(1)
Work of a force
448(3)
Power
451(3)
Average power
451(1)
Instantaneous power
452(2)
Conservation of energy
454(3)
Thermodynamics
455(1)
Heat energy
455(1)
Work done in pushing a load up a slope
456(1)
Work of the moment of a force
457(3)
Conservation of mechanical energy
460(6)
Conservation of mechanical energy in a gymnast rotating about a horizontal bar
462(2)
Conservation of mechanical energy in pole vaulting
464(2)
Internal and external work
466(8)
Measurement of internal work
467(1)
Internal work and average power output in walking
468(4)
Mechanical efficiency of the human body in walking
472(2)
Review questions
474(2)
12 Fluid mechanics
476(32)
Objectives
476(1)
Atmospheric pressure
477(4)
Archimedes' principle
478(1)
Floating in air
479(2)
Hydrostatic pressure
481(4)
Floating in water
481(4)
Drag
485(10)
Viscous drag
485(2)
Pressure drag
487(8)
Wave drag
495(1)
Bernoulli's principle
495(1)
Hydrodynamic lift
496(10)
Lift due to asymmetric shape
496(2)
Lift due to asymmetric orientation
498(5)
Lift due to asymmetric surface texture
503(1)
Lift due to spin
504(1)
Effect of drag and lift force on ball flight
505(1)
Review questions
506(2)
Appendix Origins, insertions and actions of the major muscles of the human body
508(69)
Practical worksheet 1 Linear kinematic analysis of a 15m sprint
518(4)
Practical worksheet 2 The effect of increase in speed on stride length, stride rate and relative stride length in running
522(6)
Practical worksheet 3 Force-time analysis of the ground reaction force in walking
528(5)
Practical worksheet 4 Force-time analysis of the ground reaction force in running
533(5)
Practical worksheet 5 Determination of the position of the whole body centre of gravity by the direct method using a one-dimension reaction board
538(7)
Practical worksheet 6 Comparison of the direct and segmental analysis methods of determining the position of the whole body centre of gravity of the human body
545(7)
Practical worksheet 7 Determination of take-off distance, flight distance and landing distance in a standing long jump
552(8)
Practical worksheet 8 Measurement of the moment of inertia of the human body
560(5)
Practical worksheet 9 Determination of human power output in stair climbing and running up a slope
565(6)
Practical worksheet 10 Determination of human power output in a countermovement vertical jump
571(6)
Answers to review questions 577(40)
Index 617
Subject / Bisac
  • Medical / Sports Medicine
  • Sports & Recreation
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